Aqua Control Ltd.
Lime:Hard water contains too much calcium and magnesium minerals. Hard water shortens the life of household plumbing, kettles, dishwashers, showers, washing machines, it makes cleaning and laundering tasks more difficult and decreases the efficiency of water heaters. Tell tale signs of water hardness are evident in the ‘ring around the bathtub’, soap curd and the white chalky deposits on hot and cold water fixtures (kettles, hot tanks). Hot water heaters, tested by New Mexico state university on hard water, consumed 21.68% more Btu’s of energy than those tested on softened water. Water hardness is measured chemically by the amount of calcium and magnesium bicarbonate. Together they are called total hardness.

Acid: Low pH or pH less than 6.5 is acidic. Extreme measures of acidity in water can be corrosive. Water with low pH leaves blue stains in the bath, on the shower trays and gives highlights in hair a green shine. The limits for pH are between 6.5 and 8.5 pH value of common substances are : Household bleach 14, Milk of magnesia 10, Baking soda 8, corn 6, orange juice 4, lemon juice 2 and battery acid has a pH of 0.

Odour: Rotten egg odour, see Hydrogen suphate. Other odours in the water can be chlorine, harmless organic matter, septic odour, gas. Symptoms are a grassy or musty smell, rotten egg or chemical smell.
Colour: Sometimes the water can have a brown or reddish colour in the water. It can also have a yellowish colour.

Manganese: Manganese in water leaves black stains on laundry, trays, clogs up pipes. Manganese is rarely found alone in a water source. Most of the time it is found in conjunction with iron. Manganese bearing water is also referred to as black water. The maximum limit for manganese is 0.05 mg/l

Iron: Iron water or brown water leaves brown stains on the shower trays, sinks, laundry, clogs up pipes. Iron is one of the most common elements found in nature. Most water therefore contains some measurable amount of iron. Iron is particularly found in well water. There are several forms of iron: Ferrous (clear water) iron, Ferric (red-water iron, rust) iron, organic (bacterial, heme) iron and colloidal (dispersed) iron. The limit for iron is 0.2 mg/l

Heavy metals: The most common cause of these metals is industrial waste pollution and corrosion products. The symptoms are there is no sign of a colour, taste or odour. Heavy metals may have possible health effects. Heavy metals are e.g. Zinc, Lead, Copper, Cadmium
Hydrogen sulphate: It gives a certain smell to the water. It is already noticeable at 0.25 mg/l. It is unpleasant, has corrosive characteristics. It can even be detected in softened or filtered water that showed no H2S in the raw water sample analysis. Generally this occurs in the morning due to the presence of the harmless sulphur bacteria.

Bacteria: Waterborne organisms that can cause disease in humans. They include cysts like cryptosporidium and giardia; bacteria like feacal coliform and cholera and viruses. Maximum Contamination Level is 0 for these organisms.

Sediments, Turbidity: Solid particles in water that can settle out over time. There are several different types of sediments. Mud, silt, clay and sediment. Sand, grit, silt or clay substances. Rust in water, red discolouration and sediment. This can be from new wells, suspended matter, rainstorms, organic material in water.

Other contaminants: Fluoride: Give a yellowish, mottled teeth in children, this is due to excessive Fluorides in the water.
Nitrates: They have no signs of colour, taste or odour. But they may be a health hazard for infants (blue baby syndrome).
Arsenic, Ammonia.
Water softeners

Water softeners are being used in the industry for well over 200 years. In the early 1900’s the modern water softeners as we know them today were used. How does it work? Water enters the softener, hardness minerals are being removed, leaving the water soft and better for household units. Hard water, calcium and magnesium minerals are being exchanged inside the softener by sodium ions. Once the unit is close to being saturated, the unit cleans out at night using salt (sodium chloride) to wash out the calcium and magnesium off the filter material. The calcium, magnesium and excess salt are washed down the drain. The unit is again charged with sodium ions and the softening process can start all over again. The basic components of a cation water softener system consist of a pressure tank containing the cation resin, a separate tank to store salt and for the makeup of the brine (salt and water) and a master control valve that directs the flow of the water through the regeneration and service. We are using the volumetric control valve to measure the water consumption being used. After a calculated quantity of water is used, the softener starts cleaning out. There are several types of water softeners. They come in a range from small and medium for domestic use, to big and duplex systems for commercial and industrial applications. Also available are hot water water softeners. For more information contact us.

Iron Filters

Iron filters are available in several types.
Water softeners will take out a small amount of iron and manganese. The units are backwashing out at night using salt to recharge the resin inside the water softener. This unit only removes small amounts of iron and manganese out the water. A full independent laboratory report should be done before installing a water softener on iron and manganese rich water. For more information contact us.

Birm iron filters will take out the soluble iron particles. They backwash at night and the soluble iron is flushed out of the drain. These filters are using no chemicals. A full independent laboratory report should be done before installing a BIRM filter.

Oxidising filters These filters are removing iron and manganese in one single filtration system. The water enters the unit and removes the iron and manganese. The filter cleans out at night. At a set time it starts a backwash. Then the filter uses an oxidiser (chlorine, potassium permanganate, or ozone) to remove the impurities on the filter material. The iron and manganese are flushed down the drain. The filter is ready to start the process over again. A full independent laboratory report should be done before installing the oxidising filter. For more information contact us.

pH Correction

Calcite/Corosex neutralisers: Water enters the pH correction unit and flows over a calcite and/or corosex filter material. This neutralizes the acidic (eg carbonic acid) water. The filter backwashes automatically to prevent cementing of the filter material. The filter material dissolves in water to neutralize the acid. The filter should therefore always be checked on a yearly basis to see if the material needs to be topped up. Depending on the level of acid, the filtering operation may be so unbalanced that a water softener is needed. A report by an independent laboratory should be done prior to installation. For proper performance of this pH modification technique, it is critical that the service flow rate through the bed of calcite granules does not exceed the rate at which the chemical reaction of calcite can take place. Too often calcite neutralizers are installed which are undersized resulting in partial pH correction. Every unit needs to be calculated exactly. For more information contact us.

pH dosing system: An alternative method for the use of either calcite or magnesia for pH modification is a simple proportionate chemical feeder. With a small feed pump, a solution may be fed into the water stream to raise the pH of an acidic water supply. As water flows through the pipes, a water meter measures the volume of water being used. On certain intervals (10, 100, 1000l), the water meter releases an electrical pulse to the dosing pump. This pump releases an alkaline in the water, therefore neutralising the acid. The water after the pH dosing system has a neutral pH. An advantage of chemical feeding is that it does not add hardness to the water as occurs with calcite or magnesia pH correction. Tests should be done before and after the installation is done to verify that the pH level is satisfactory. For more information contact us.

UV disinfection

UV disinfection is an economical way to free the water from bacteria without using chlorine or other chemicals. Water enters the UV installation and flows over a uv light. The light density of 254nm wavelength from the uv light enables the bacteria and destroys the DNA. Therefore these rays prevent its normal activity.
These units are extremely popular due to several advantages.
+They treat the water without chemicals, therefore are environmentally friendly.
+There is no need for a dosing pump for the chemical so no possibility for dosing too much.
+There is no need for a storage tank because it sterilizes the water as it passes through.
+ It can be used as part of a larger water treatment unit (iron, softening, sediment, etc).
+ It is cheaper than dosing systems, low energy consumption and require little service.
+ No change in taste in the water.
UV systems are available in different sizes depending on the flow rate, pipe size and water quality. For more information contact us.

Sediment filters

Filter AG: Water enters the filter and flows over filter AG, a gravel designed to take the sediment out of the water. At night the filter washes the sediment out into a drain. The filtration units depending on the turbidity in the water. For more information contact us.
Inline Sediment Filter: Water enters the filter and flows through the filter cartridge. The sediment (grid, clay or sand) stays inside the cartridge. These cartridges need regular replacement. They can be used for the removal of particles in the water. For more information contact us.

Under sink drinking water units:

Several options are available:

Chlorine filters: remove chlorine out of the water by activated carbon filters. Water enters the filter and absorbs the chlorine. After a certain volume of water is being used, this filter is exhausted. At this time the filter cartridge needs replacement.

Ceramic filters: filters down to 0.9 micron. These filters remove cryptosporidium and coliforms.

Ultra filtration systems: filters down to 0.02 micron. These filters remove:
bacteria, viruses, chlorine, sediment. Like reverse osmosis, ultra filtration involves cross-filtration (tangential) flow. That is, one incoming stream, and two streams exiting the device. UF membranes are made especially to remove particulate and organic matter by a sieving process using the pores of the membrane surface. Most particulate, organisms, bacteria, pyrogens and macromolecules – larger than the filter’s (membrane) nominal weight cut off are removed by ultra filtration. In ultra filtration, passage or rejection is based on particle size range from 0.001 µm to 0.02 µm (10-200 Angstroms). The relatively large pore size excludes the UF membrane from being useful for lowering the TDS, and yet the rejection of pyrogens, viruses, and large organics is virtually complete. Molecular weight cut off for UF membranes can range from as low as 1000 to as high as 80000.

Reverse Osmosis systems: filters down to 0.001 micron. These filters remove:

Sediment, chlorine, bacteria, viruses, heavy metals and salts. Osmosis is a natural process, known for over 200 years, on which reverse osmosis systems are based. The walls of living cells are natural semipermeable membranes. This means that the membrane is selective, some materials can pass through it, others cannot. The semipermeable nature of the membrane allows the water to pass much more readily than the dissolved minerals. Also, the permeate may be further treated, as when water is very high in total dissolved solids (TDS) is processed by an RO system before being demineralised by ion exchange. Reverse Osmosis is a low energy process, useful for substantially reducing the dissolved mineral content of water. For more information Contact us.

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